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Throughout the early 1960s, the British worked to incorporate most of the Aden Protectorate into the Federation and in 1963, the Colony of Aden was added and the union was renamed the Federation of South Arabia.
Those areas that did not join the Federation of South Arabia, which mostly comprised the territories in the eastern half of the former Aden Protectorate, formed the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1963.
A unique feature of Yemen is Socotra Island located 240 kilometers (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa and 380 kilometers (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula.
Most of Northern Yemen and small parts of Southern Yemen became incorporated into the Ottoman Empire during the 19 century, although the Zaidi imams generally maintained control of the highland regions until the Ottomans captured Sana’a in 1872.
During this century, the British Empire controlled areas along the coast of Southern Yemen and the port of Aden and administered the region as a part of British India.
By 1970, Imam al-Badr had fled to Saudi Arabia and the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) was firmly established in northern Yemen.
Southern Yemen, still composed at this time of the Federation of South Arabia and the Protectorate of South Arabia, also experienced its share of unrest.
The result was five years of bloodshed with between 100,000 to 200,000 casualties.